California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (2023)

  • How many foundations publications are there? What domains of development do they cover?

    There are 3 volumes of the preschool foundations, covering 9 domains. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume One covers Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English-Language Development, and Mathematics. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 2 covers Visual and Performing Arts, Physical Development, and Health. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 3 covers the domains of History-Social Science and Science.

  • Which children are addressed by the preschool learning foundations?

    The preschool learning foundations define age-appropriate expectations about what children should know and be able to do at around 48 and 60 months of age. These ages are meant to describe children at the end of their first and second year of preschool. The preschool foundations include research-based approaches aimed at all preschool children, including dual language learners and children with disabilities or other special needs. Based on current research and evidence about preschool children’s development, they describe the wide range of knowledge and skills that all preschool children typically attain in high-quality preschool programs.

  • Why are the foundations organized by age rather than along a continuum across ages three, four, and five?

    The preschool foundations focus on 48 and 60 months of age because they correspond to the end of the first and second years of enrollment in preschool. It is essential for teachers and parents to understand what children should know and be able to do at specific ages so that they can provide appropriate support. English learners enter preschool with different levels of experience with English, as well as with varying skills with their primary languages. The English–language development foundations describe what children typically demonstrate at three different levels of successive English-language development: beginning, middle, and later. Each of the foundations describes the competencies—knowledge and skills—that all preschool children typically attain in high-quality preschool programs. In addition, teachers need to know where each child is on a continuum of learning throughout the child’s time in preschool.

  • Who was involved in the development of the California Preschool Learning Foundations?

    Early childhood education researchers, college faculty, program directors, site supervisors, teachers, and other stakeholders were involved in the process of developing and reviewing each volume of the foundations. Each publication of the foundations was developed over the course of several years using an inclusive and deliberative input process, including many statewide stakeholder meetings, public input sessions, public hearings, and public comment through the California Department of Education's (CDE) Web site. Input from the various review opportunities was considered and incorporated as appropriate. For a complete list of those involved in the development of the foundations, please refer to the Acknowledgments pages in the front of each volume of the foundations.

  • How will teachers, families, and directors obtain training on the foundations?

    The California Department of Education’s Early Learning and Care Division (ELCD) sponsors a variety of training opportunities aimed at a variety of early childhood professionals.

    For teachers and administrators working in programs with preschool-aged children, the California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) provides in depth training on all nine domains of the foundations and framework as well as onsite technical assistance. Information sessions, trainings, and other professional development opportunities provide an overview of what the foundations are, and also more focused training on specific foundation domains and practical application in early learning settings. For program directors, preschool teachers, and family child care providers, check with the California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (1) to find the professional development opportunities in your area.

    For specific training for family child care home providers, check with the Placer County Office of Education about their Family Child Care at Its Best Program .

    California Early Childhood Online (CECO) California Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (3) provides free, easy-to-use online modules that provide an overview of all nine domains found in the preschool foundations.

    Families now have access to knowledge of the preschool foundations through the All About Young Children websiteCalifornia Preschool Learning Foundations - Child Development (CA Dept of Education) (4). Information is available in 8 languages.

  • When will the preschool learning foundations be required?

    The preschool learning foundations are not required in the same sense to which K-12 standards are. They have been developed to inform the early childhood field about the knowledge and skills that young children are expected to display with appropriate support. Training opportunities allow educators to consider how knowledge of the foundations will inform their curriculum planning for groups of children and individuals and affect their setting's learning environments. The Desired Results Developmental Profile© (DRDP) Preschool 2010 (DRDP–PS 2010) and DRDP (2015), the child observational assessment tool, is aligned with the California Preschool Learning Foundations. California State Preschool Programs are required to use this foundations-aligned instrument.

  • How does the Desired Results Developmental Profile© relate to the foundations?

    The California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations and the California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes 1-3, provide early childhood educators, parents, and the public with a clear understanding of the wide range of knowledge and skills that preschool children typically attain after the first and second year of participation in a high-quality preschool setting. The DRDP (2015) is a child observational assessment tool that is aligned with the California Infant/Toddler and Preschool Learning Foundations. The DRDP provides teachers with a means to assess children’s learning along a continuum of developmental levels. The foundations and the DRDP are used together to plan the environment, play, learning activities, and instruction to meet the needs of the children and provide high-quality experiences. DRDP (2015) provides measures for dual–language learners and for children with special needs.

  • Are the preschool learning foundations and frameworks part of the Federal Program Monitoring/Contract Monitoring Review process?

    The Federal Program Monitoring/Contract Monitoring Review (FPM/CMR) process uses the foundations-aligned DRDP-2010.

  • How does the state monitor its funded programs to determine if programs are appropriately applying the content of the foundations and framework, ensuring ongoing program improvement?

    The ELCD will continue to monitor programs through the use of the FPM/CMR system. Programs can track children’s developmental progress by utilizing the Desired Results Developmental Profile (DRDP 2010).

  • What is the role of “play”? Is there balance between child-initiated and teacher-directed practices?

    Play is integral to all children’s learning and development. Teachers should provide ongoing appropriate activities for children that encourage learning through play. Early childhood research suggests a balance between child-initiated and teacher-directed activities that are purposeful and intentional. The social-emotional development foundations provide guidance on the role of play in children’s learning.

  • How do the preschool learning foundations and frameworks relate to the K-12 system?

    All too often, children entering school for the first time as kindergarteners are already lagging behind their classmates. This disadvantage, called the school readiness gap, can affect them socially and academically long past kindergarten. Studies show that closing the school readiness gap will help to close the achievement gap. High-quality preschools, guided by the preschool learning foundations and frameworks, can help achieve that goal. Those preschool programs that strengthen children’s readiness for school operate with a more optimal understanding about what children need to learn before they start school. The preschool foundations, frameworks, and the aligned DRDP (2010) and DRDP (2015) will provide the detail and a developmental continuum to assist quality programs prepare children for transitional kindergarten and their ability to be successful in grades K-3.

  • How are foundations aligned to California’s content standards for kindergarten?

    The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, second edition (print format only) illustrates how the preschool foundations align with California state Kindergarten content standards, the common core state standards, the infant toddler foundations and the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework.

  • Will foundations be used to keep track of children’s progress?

    No. The foundations should not be used as a tracking tool, since they are not an assessment. Foundations should be used by teachers and parents to guide expectations, instruction, planning, and professional development so that all children can be ready for school. To assess children’s developmental progress in these domains, early care and education professionals are encouraged to use the DRDP.

  • Do the foundations require that teachers focus on teaching skills so children can pass a test?

    No. Programs should provide high-quality, age-appropriate preschool experiences for children. Teaching young children to pass tests is not developmentally appropriate. The foundations, as well as the examples listed in the foundations publications, are not provided as discrete skills. They describe children’s typical knowledge and skills that teachers need to intentionally plan for as they design and create their curriculum and learning activities. Guidance is provided in the preschool curriculum framework publications (volumes 1, 2, and 3) on curriculum planning and teaching strategies to ensure optimal learning and development for all children.

  • Have the foundations been adopted by the State Board of Education (SBE)?

    No. The State Board of Education (SBE) oversees and adopts policies, regulations, and guidance for kindergarten through grade 12. Preschool education is not under the jurisdiction of the SBE, but is by statute and regulation the responsibility of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction has approved the foundations, because he oversees the work of the ELCD at the California Department of Education.

  • Does the state require programs to use one commercial curriculum?

    No. The CDE does not approve texts, materials, or particular curriculum for preschool programs. These are all local decisions. The curriculum framework will provide guidance for using the foundations in program planning, instructional strategies and professional development.

  • How do the Preschool Learning Foundations relate to the Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines? Will the Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines be revised?

    The foundations describe competencies—knowledge and skills—that most children can be expected to exhibit in a high-quality program as they complete their first and second year of preschool. The Prekindergarten Learning and Development Guidelines (2000) is replaced by the California Preschool Program Guidelines (Fall 2014), which provides guidance to early care and education administrators on how to develop high-quality preschool programs to support children’s optimal learning and development. This new publication is aligned with the preschool learning foundations and includes two featured chapters: 1) Dual Language Learners, and 2) Using Technology and Interactive Media with Preschool Aged Children.

  • How do the English-language development foundations relate to the Preschool English Language Learners (PEL) Resource Guide (Title: Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning)?

    The English-language development (ELD) foundations describe what children typically demonstrate at three different levels of English-language development. The Preschool English Learners (PEL) Resource Guide reinforces the information in the introduction to the ELD foundations, and includes additional material about family and community language practices, simultaneous second language acquisition, and supporting the English-language learner with special needs.

  • Does the CDE provide guidance on how to determine if a child is an English learner?

    No. The CDE has not adopted or recommended a formal process or instrument to determine who is a preschool English learner. English learners are children whose families use a language other than English at home and whose primary or first language is a language other than English. Families are the best source of information concerning preschool children’s early experiences with language learning. If the family reports that a preschool child’s primary language is other than English, the child is considered an English learner, that is, a dual language learner.

  • Does the CDE provide guidance on how to assess and monitor children's progress on the preschool English-language development foundations?

    The DRDP (2015) is aligned with the California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volumes 1-3. As part of alignment, four measures were developed for use with preschool age children and focus on the English-language development (ELD) of children whose home language is not English. These measures allow preschool teachers to observe and track children’s progress in reaching the competencies described in the preschool ELD foundations. English learners may demonstrate their competence in any of the DRDP measures using their home language or English.

  • FAQs

    How many volumes are there of the CA preschool learning Foundations? ›

    There are 3 volumes of the preschool foundations, covering 9 domains. The California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume One covers Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English-Language Development, and Mathematics.

    What are 3 of the preschool learning foundations? ›

    California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1

    Volume 1 of the California Preschool Learning Foundations focuses on the domains of social-emotional development, language and literacy, English-language development, and mathematics.

    What are the four domains 56 the preschool learning foundations presented in volume 1 cover? ›

    These foundations focus on four domains: social-emotional development, language and literacy, English-language development, and mathematics. They provide a comprehensive understanding of what children learn in these four domains.

    Which of the following are domains of the CA preschool learning Foundations? ›

    The preschool learning foundations presented in this document cover the following four domains or areas of emphasis:
    • Social-Emotional Development.
    • Language and Literacy.
    • English-Language Development (for English learners)
    • Mathematics.

    How much is preschool tuition in CA? ›

    The average private preschool tuition in California is $12,186 per year (2023).

    How many books should be in a preschool classroom library? ›

    Decide How to Display Books

    Here are a few things to consider while deciding how to display books. Experts recommend having 10-15 books available per child. (That's 180 books in my classroom library!) Preschoolers are going to be accessing the books.

    What are the 5 areas of preschool development? ›

    There are 5 key areas of development:
    • gross motor skills, for example crawling, jumping or running.
    • fine motor skills, such as writing and drawing.
    • speech and language.
    • cognitive and intellectual, such as counting or identifying shapes.
    • social and emotional skills, such as playing with other children.

    What are the three A's in child development? ›

    The 3A's of child care—Attention, Approval, and Affection—are extremely pow- erful tools available to any person in just about any situation. They are not only valuable tools; their use is essential in the care of children.

    What are the 4 developmental domains in preschool? ›

    All domains of child development—physical development, cognitive development, social and emotional development, and linguistic development (including bilingual or multilingual development), as well as approaches to learning—are important; each domain both supports and is supported by the others.

    What are the five 5 teaching domains? ›

    Design, development, utilization, management and evaluation are the five basic domains of the field. These terms refer to both areas of the knowledge base and to functions performed by professionals in the field. Each domain of Instructional Technology includes a body of knowledge based on both research and experience.

    What are the 5 domains for children? ›

    “There are five critical domains in a child's development,” said Dianna Fryer, Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph Child Development Program training and curriculum specialist. “Those domains are social, emotional, physical, cognitive and language.”

    What are the 4 pillars of learning correspond to the 3 domains of teaching? ›

    The three domains of learning are cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. There are a variety of methods in professional development events to engage the different learning domains.

    What are the 7 domains of preschool child development? ›

    The student is viewed Holistically through Seven Domains: spiritual, mental, social, emotional, creative, natural, and physical.

    What are the three domains in every classroom system? ›

    It is hence important for teachers to ensure that the three (3) domains of learning which include cognitive (thinking), affective (emotions or feeling) and Psychomotor (Physical or kinesthetic) to be achieved.

    What are the 4 domains in the classroom? ›

    Danielson's Framework for Teaching

    Danielson divides the complex activity of teaching into twenty-two components clustered into four domains of teaching responsibility: (1) planning and preparation, (2) the classroom environment, (3) instruction, and (4) professional responsibilities.

    How many hours a day is preschool in California? ›

    The California State Preschool Program defines a full-day program as one that lasts at least 6.5 hours. Program lengths vary, but are often not long enough to cover the hours that working parents need care for their children. That is especially the case if a parent works a regular eight-hour day.

    Will preschool be free in California? ›

    As part of the Governor's $123.9 billion Pre-K and K-12 education package, California will provide free, high-quality, inclusive pre-kindergarten for all four-year-olds, beginning in 2022-23 with full implementation anticipated by 2025-26.

    How much are preschool teachers paid in California? ›

    How much does a Preschool Teacher make in California? The average Preschool Teacher salary in California is $42,230 as of March 28, 2023, but the range typically falls between $38,130 and $48,270.

    How long should a preschool book be? ›

    Story-based or fiction picture books are usually 32 pages long and vary between 500 to 1000 words. They are designed for pre-schoolers and children in the first few years of primary school, and are usually intended to be read aloud as a shared experience between an adult and child.

    How many books per child should a preschool setting include? ›

    The number of books offered in your literacy center is ultimately up to you and your school directors, but a good goal number is 3-5 books for each of the children in your care.

    How many books does it take for a room to be considered a library? ›

    Mr. Byers cited a common belief that 1,000 is the minimum in any self-respecting home library. Then he quickly divided that number in half. Five hundred books ensure that a room “will begin to feel like a library,” he said.

    What are the 7 stages of child development? ›

    • Infant Development.
    • Toddler Development.
    • Preschooler Development.
    • Middle Childhood Development.
    • Adolescent Development.
    • Adult Development.

    What is the average age toddlers start talking? ›

    At what age do babies start talking? Most babies say their first word sometime between 12 and 18 months of age. However, you'll start to hear the early stages of verbal communication shortly after birth. "From birth to 3 months, babies make sounds.

    What is the curriculum in preschool? ›

    A preschool curriculum is a set of planned learning experiences or goals that educators use to guide what they will teach young children. The primary purpose of any curriculum should be to help kids build the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in school and beyond.

    What are the three C's in a child? ›

    These difficult periods are usually accompanied by the three C's: clinginess, crankiness and crying. We now know that they are the tell-tale signs of a period in which the child makes a major leap forward in his mental development. Babies all undergo these fussy phases at around the same ages.

    What are the three C's in children? ›

    The mnemonic of “The Three C's” (Catching, Checking, and Changing) can be particularly helpful to children in learning this process.

    What are the three C's for kids? ›

    Content, context, and the child.

    What are 7 domains? ›

    The seven domains of wellness are: physical, social, occupational, emotional, intellectual, environmental, and spiritual. These domains can be used to assess the state of your own health or the population at large. When one domain is suffering, the others will also be affected.

    What are the major developmental task of preschooler? ›

    During this stage, children should be able to ride a tricycle, use safety scissors, notice a difference between girls and boys, help to dress and undress themselves, play with other children, recall part of a story, and sing a song.

    What does Spice stand for in child development? ›

    Learning Outcomes

    Use the acronym, 'SPICE' to remember the key areas of development: • Social; • Physical; • Intellectual; • Communication; • Emotional. These areas do not develop in isolation from each other, they are all connected.

    What are the 3 domains of Bloom's taxonomy? ›

    Bloom's taxonomy was proposed by an educational psychologist Bloom and his colleagues in 1956 in which three domains of learning were identified. The domains included cognitive (mental), affective (emotional/feelings/attitude) and psychomotor (physical ability) skills.

    What are the 3 learning objectives? ›

    There are three main types of learning objectives: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Cognitive objectives focus on mental skills or knowledge and are common in school settings. Learning objectives written with the ABCD approach have four components: the audience, behavior, condition, and degree.

    What is the rule of five in teaching? ›

    “The Rule of 5” states that you must say five encouraging remarks to the child before you can say something negative. This formula comes from a simple idea that every parent or teacher would acknowledge: even children with good self-worth take corrections as criticisms.

    What are the 4 types of child development? ›

    Children grow and develop rapidly in their first five years across the four main areas of development. These areas are motor (physical), language and communication, cognitive and social/emotional.

    What are the 4 types of development? ›

    Physical, social, emotional and cognitive development.

    What are the 5 types of development? ›

    There are 5 types of development: physical, intellectual/cognitive, social, emotional, and moral. Each type refers to specific characteristics in a developing child that start out being basic and then progress to being ever more advanced.

    What are the 4 components of teaching? ›

    The Framework for Teaching (FFT) is a set of components that outlines a teacher's responsibilities. It's divided into four domains: Planning and Preparation, Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities.

    What is Bloom's cognitive domain? ›

    Cognitive Domain. The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.

    What are the three 3 elements of the teaching learning process? ›

    Effective teaching involves aligning the three major components of instruction: learning objectives, assessments, and instructional activities. Taking the time to do this upfront saves time in the end and leads to a better course.

    What is the most important domain for early childhood development? ›

    Cognitive. The cognitive domain is the one that children develop in order to understand cause and effect.

    What are the 6 domains of ECCD checklist? ›

    Children are monitored according to seven domains: gross motor, fine motor, self-help, receptive language, expressive language, cognitive and socio-emotional.

    What are the 4 domains affected by children's play? ›

    During play, children are using all their senses and improving all of their developmental domains: social, physical, language, intellectual, creative and emotional.

    What are the preschool observation domains? ›

    The classic approach to development recognizes four domains: physical, intellectual, emotional, and social.

    Which are not a learning domain? ›

    Thus it is clear that spiritual is not a domain of learning.

    How can I improve my classroom skills? ›

    13 ways to create a positive classroom environment
    1. Build positive relationships. ...
    2. Arrange the physical environment. ...
    3. Set high academic expectations. ...
    4. Provide positive reinforcement. ...
    5. Be open to feedback. ...
    6. Encourage collaboration. ...
    7. Use current curriculum and teaching methods. ...
    8. Be there for them.
    Feb 3, 2023

    What are the four 4 domains in Bloom's Taxonomy? ›

    A revision of Bloom's taxonomy

    There are four levels on the knowledge dimension: factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive.

    What is the domain 5? ›

    Domain 5 - Treating and caring for people in a safe environment and protecting them from avoidable harm.

    What are the four domains of child development answer key? ›

    The major domains of development are physical, cognitive, language, and social-emotional.

    How many volumes are in the creative curriculum? ›

    Six foundation volumes further your understandings of best practices and support you in creating a high-quality learning environment. Daily Resources help you plan and manage every moment as you immerse children in dynamic and engaging learning experiences throughout the school day.

    Who published the California preschool Curriculum Framework volumes? ›

    The California Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1, was developed by the Child Development Division, California Depart- ment of Education.

    How many books are in the creative curriculum? ›

    The Creative Curriculum for Preschool includes the Teaching Strategies Children's Book Collection: over 100 books in a variety of genres, including beloved classic tales, contemporary works by well-known authors, and original nonfiction books created to complement the studies featured in our Teaching Guides.

    What are the four foundations of early learning? ›

    How Does Learning Happen? is organized around four foundational conditions that are important for children to grow and flourish: Belonging, Well-Being, Engagement, and Expression.

    How many levels of curriculum are there? ›

    The five levels of curriculum integration identified in this study are identified as departmentalized, reinforcement, complementary or shared units, webbed, and integrated themes.

    What grade do kids learn volume? ›

    Students build on the understanding of circles and volume from seventh grade to find the volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. By the end of eighth grade, students should understand the relationship between the volumes of cylinders and cones, and the volumes of cylinders and spheres to the corresponding formulas.

    Does creative curriculum have assessments? ›

    The Creative Curriculum® for Preschool also emphasizes the use of observation-based child assessments to help guide instruction. In addition to the general curriculum guide, separate literacy, math, science, and social studies guides are available.

    What are the two domains covered in the preschool learning foundations presented in volume 3? ›

    Volume 3 focuses on two domains: history–social science and science. These domains have received less attention than some other domains, but their importance has been increasingly recognized by early childhood education experts.

    Who decides California curriculum? ›

    In California, the State Board of Education decides on the standards for all students, from kindergarten through high school. Standards have the power to change what happens in classrooms because they influence curriculum, including textbooks, learning materials, and tests.

    Which preschool program is known as the child-centered approach? ›

    A Child-Centered Approach

    Children take responsibility for making choices about what they will learn and explore. Teachers listen for cues and watch interests develop to create an appropriate curriculum for each individual. This method is also sometimes referred to as play-based.

    Does creative curriculum have lesson plans? ›

    At the back of The Creative Curriculum® for Infants, Toddlers, and Twos Volume 1: The Foundation you will find lesson planning templates, and examples. Another resource available to support planning is the NMCAA Lesson Plan, Daily Routine, & Schedule Guide listed below.

    What is the rest time for creative curriculum? ›

    Rest time 90 minutes Help children relax and get comfortable. Supervise the rest area at all times. Provide quiet activities for children who do not sleep. Adjust the length of rest time to suit the age of the group and the needs of individual children.

    What are the components of The Creative Curriculum for preschoolers? ›

    The Creative Curriculum includes developmentally appropriate goals and objectives for children within four main categories of interest: social/emotional, physical, cognitive and language. The social/emotional stage helps promote independence, self-confidence and self-control.

    What are the 4 C's in early childhood education? ›

    With such a monumental shift in the education sector, there is a dire need for students to shift their priorities and focus on the core learning skills like the 4Cs; Communication, Collaboration, Creativity and Critical Thinking.

    What are the 5 foundational components of early childhood teaching? ›

    This document identifies and articulates the characteristics of five Key Elements that are fundamental to achieving high-quality experiences and strong outcomes for preschool children: the learning environment, daily routine, adult-child relationships, teaching practices, and family engagement.

    What are the 5 key areas of early learning practices? ›

    DAP focuses on five key areas of early learning practices:
    • Creating a caring community of learners. ...
    • Teaching to enhance development and learning. ...
    • Planning curriculum to achieve important goals. ...
    • Assessing children's development and learning. ...
    • Establishing reciprocal relationships with families.


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